Handling mutable fields in Java

In Java, a mutable object is one whose state can be altered after it has been instantiated. An immutable object is one whose state is fixed after instantiation; that is, the data represented by the object cannot be changed in that object. Perhaps the most well-known immutable type is the built in String class; while there are methods on the String class that seemingly alter its state (such as toUpperCase() and trim()), in actuality these methods return a new String object if changes had to be made. In this article I’ll discuss how mutability will affect how you expose private fields in objects.

Pop Quiz

Consider the following code fragment. We create a MapContainer object, and then get the contained map, which is guaranteed to have a certain value associated with the key “today”. We then alter the value associated with this key, using our local reference to returned map. We then query the MapContainer object and get the contained map again. What is the value associated with the key “today” in this map?

final MapContainer mapContainer = new MapContainer();
final Map<String, String> map = mapContainer.getKeyValuePairs();

final String today = map.get("today");
assert null != today;
System.out.println(today);  // Returns the current date-time.

// Change the value using our local reference.
map.put("today", "tomorrow");

final Map<String, String> mapAgain = mapContainer.getKeyValuePairs();
System.out.println(mapAgain.get("today")); // What is output?

Don’t waste too much time on this problem, as it’s a trick question. The answer actually depends on the implementation of MapContainer. Depending on how it’s implemented, the second output could be unchanged from the first or be changed to the new value of “tomorrow”.